Task 1

TASK 1

TASK 1

Review of the state of play

Task leader

Partners involved

The aim of this task is to offer current insights into the decarbonization of the fisheries sector through a in-depth examination of scientific and grey literature, along with the implementation of new energy audit surveys. The existing knowledge within this consortium is large due to the experiences of each individual partner.

Literature and energy audit information (both technical and economic) will be collected and organised in a customized library database using reference management software, such as Endnote or Zotero. Library will be shared on the project website and an ‘activity feed’ will become available to monitor changes and add new references to the library or stored PDFs.

These allow for studying the economical sustainability of different fishing techniques and vessels as a function of energy, productivity (catches) and fish prices.

The project will meet the objective of this task through undertaking a review including the following five subtasks. 

Subtasks

Subtask 1a

Existing research on gear modifications towards the decarbonisation of the Mediterranean and Black Sea trawling fleet

Subtask 1a

Existing research on gear modifications towards the decarbonisation of the Mediterranean and Black Sea trawling fleet
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Subtask 1b

Analysis of the fuel consumption and carbon emissions by fleet/gear and area

Subtask 1b

Analysis of the fuel consumption and carbon emissions by fleet/gear and area
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Subtask 1c

Identification of baselines of fuel consumption by gear/area

Subtask 1c

Identification of baselines of fuel consumption by gear/area
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Subtask 1d

Analyses of other relevant elements that could contribute to the decarbonization of the trawling fishing fleet

Subtask 1d

Analyses of other relevant elements that could contribute to the decarbonization of the trawling fishing fleet
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Subtask 1e

Analysis of the results of the ongoing EMFAF study on ‘Technological-economic analysis for the energy transition of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors’

Subtask 1e

Analysis of the results of the ongoing EMFAF study on ‘Technological-economic analysis for the energy transition of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors’
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Subtask leader: Emilio Notti (CNR). 

Partners involved: CNR, ABT, CIBM, COISPA, CONISMA, FRI, HCMR, IEO-CSIC, IO-BAS, IOF, NIMRD, SZN, UTH. 

Effective rationalisation of energy consumption can only be achieved if waste factors are identified in advance. Following the procedures defined in Sala et al. (2022), energy audits will be implemented to establish baselines in the area/gear combinations specified in Table 1. DecarbonyT partners will perform energy audit surveys to: i) collect data and information in order to carry out an energy analysis of the harvesting operations; ii) process data collected and preparation of the audit reports; iii) identify areas of possible intervention. The energy audit surveys will be carried out on a sample of ten fishing vessels in each area/gear combination stratified by vessel length and engine power. Vessels monitored and evaluated in the pilot studies (Task 2) will be included.

FRAMEWORK CONTRACT – EASME/EMFF/2020/OP/0021 14 / 60 

in the samples of the ten vessels / area-gear combinations so that they will be used as a validation exercise of the Energy audit approach. 

A standard layout for the information collection will be discussed and settled during the first coordination meeting (Orientation meeting, see §Task 0. Project management and scientific coordination and Table 4). 

Collect information on innovations that are targeting drag force reduction and fishing gear modifications (e.g., alternative designs of door, trawl net, ground gear). The review will explore those suggested modifications that are suitable to the fishing fleet in terms of innovation uptake. This should include the compilation and critical review of best practices in towed fishing gear operations. 

To compile, through reviews on existing technical literature and data, on fuel consumption, information useful to determine which are the most energy efficient techniques and vessel characteristics in terms of catch per unit of primary energy. 

Where available, information should be broken down by major fishery and by different metiers and vessel sizes. This information should, where possible, indicate how energy consumption is distributed among the different operations, including steaming, searching, catching, handling, and storing on board. The result would take the form of a catalogue of fishing gear and vessel characteristics and a quantification of their performance in terms of energy efficiency. 

Subtask leader: Tommaso Russo (CONISMA). 

Partners involved: CONISMA, CIBM, CNR, FRI, HCMR, IEO-CSIC, IOF. 

This specific objective will be pursued primarily through the integrated analysis of Fisheries Dependent Information (FDI) data and Annual Economic Report (AER) on the EU Fishing Fleet. Combining the AER information with the FDI data it would be possible to estimate the fuel use intensity at gear level (STECF, 2023). Basically, spatial and temporal patterns of fishing effort and related catches and landings will be combined, at the level of individual fleet segments, with fuel consumption to carry out a top-down reconstruction of the spatial pattern of the FUI (litres of fuel per ton of landed fish) and EUI (litres of fuel per unit of effort). 

According to the exercise carried out in the Annual Economic Report 2023 (AER), fuel intensity (i.e. the quantity of fuel consumed per quantity of fish landed) and fuel efficiency (i.e. the ratio between fuel costs and revenue, expressed as a percentage) will be estimated from DCF-FDI and AER for all possible fleet segments among those identified in the proposal, based on available information. 

In parallel, an application that models the fuel consumption of individual vessels (including steaming and fishing phases) to obtain a bottom-up estimation of the fuel consumption and carbon emission at the scale of fleet segment will be developed. This bottom-up modelling approach will be implemented through the set-up and the application of a fully functional R-based procedure that, starting from: 

remote tracking device data (e.g., VMS, AIS), and; 

a set of parameters, such as those published in Sala et al. (2022) (see Figures 7 and 8) 

will return the estimated carbon footprint of each fishing vessel, according to its spatial behaviour and fishing strategy (i.e., the combination of steaming towards fishing grounds and fishing activity). A specific data call will be established and launched to Member States by DGMARE with the support of the Consortium to collect VMS data of vessels operating with the fishing gears and in the areas listed in Table 1. An alternative/integrative source of information will be represented by AIS data provided from public platforms such as Global Fishing Watch. 

This procedure will represent a tool to project the performance of fleets by gear and area in terms of carbon footprint which would be used to inform stakeholders about the potential effects of the implementation of the new gears. 

Subtask leader: Anna Nora Tassetti (CNR). 

Partners involved: CIBM, CNR, CONISMA, HCMR, IEO-CSIC, IOF. 

This Subtask aims to identify new baselines of fuel consumption from vessels employing experimental gears. Energy consumption data from individual vessels obtained in the pilot project for improved fishing gears development and testing at sea (Task 2) and energy audits implemented in Subtask 1a will be analysed to determine baselines of fuel consumption by gear/area combination (including steaming and fishing phases) to update where possible, the results described by Sala et al. (2022). 

In addition, the procedure developed in Subtask 1b will be applied using as input parameters the new baselines of fuel consumption. In this way, a new estimation of the overall carbon footprint by fleet/gear and area will be obtained. 

Finally, a comparison of the overall fuel consumption and carbon emissions, obtained from previous and new baselines, will be performed. This comparison will provide valuable information about the performance of new gears in terms of carbon emissions while informing about the effectiveness of gear modifications in the reduction of fishing fuel footprint. 

In addition, the objectives of this Subtask will be also achieved through the application of the approaches described in Subtask 1b. In this way, the baselines of fuel consumption by gear/area will be obtained using the set of parameters published in Sala et al. (2022) or, when possible, the additional values collected in the energy audits of Subtask 1a.